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Research Article
Dynamic System Identification of Underwater Vehicles Using Multi-output Gaussian Processes
Wilmer Ariza Ramirez, Juš Kocijan, Zhi Quan Leong, Hung Duc Nguyen, Shantha Gamini Jayasinghe
2021, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 681-693, doi: 10.1007/s11633-021-1308-x
Abstract:
Non-parametric system identification with Gaussian processes for underwater vehicles is explored in this research with the purpose of modelling autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) dynamics with a low amount of data. Multi-output Gaussian processes and their aptitude for modelling the dynamic system of an underactuated AUV without losing the relationships between tied outputs are used. The simulation of a first-principle model of a Remus 100 AUV is employed to capture data for the training and validation of the multi-output Gaussian processes. The metric and required procedure to carry out multi-output Gaussian processes for AUV with 6 degrees of freedom (DoF) is also shown in this paper. Multi-output Gaussian processes compared with the popular technique of recurrent neural network show that multi-output Gaussian processes manage to surpass RNN for non-parametric dynamic system identification in underwater vehicles with highly coupled DoF with the added benefit of providing the measurement of confidence.
Designing an Intelligent Control Philosophy in Reservoirs of Water Transfer Networks in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System Stations
Ali Dolatshahi Zand, Kaveh Khalili-Damghani, Sadigh Raissi
2021, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 694-717, doi: 10.1007/s11633-021-1284-1
Abstract:
In this paper, a hybrid neural-genetic fuzzy system is proposed to control the flow and height of water in the reservoirs of water transfer networks. These controls will avoid probable water wastes in the reservoirs and pressure drops in water distribution networks. The proposed approach combines the artificial neural network, genetic algorithm, and fuzzy inference system to improve the performance of the supervisory control and data acquisition stations through a new control philosophy for instruments and control valves in the reservoirs of the water transfer networks. First, a multi-core artificial neural network model, including a multi-layer perceptron and radial based function, is proposed to forecast the daily consumption of the water in a reservoir. A genetic algorithm is proposed to optimize the parameters of the artificial neural networks. Then, the online height of water in the reservoir and the output of artificial neural networks are used as inputs of a fuzzy inference system to estimate the flow rate of the reservoir inlet. Finally, the estimated inlet flow is translated into the input valve position using a transform control unit supported by a nonlinear autoregressive exogenous model. The proposed approach is applied in the Tehran water transfer network. The results of this study show that the usage of the proposed approach significantly reduces the deviation of the reservoir height from the desired levels.
STRNet: Triple-stream Spatiotemporal Relation Network for Action Recognition
Zhi-Wei Xu, Xiao-Jun Wu, Josef Kittler
2021, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 718-730, doi: 10.1007/s11633-021-1289-9
Abstract:
Learning comprehensive spatiotemporal features is crucial for human action recognition. Existing methods tend to model the spatiotemporal feature blocks in an integrate-separate-integrate form, such as appearance-and-relation network (ARTNet) and spatiotemporal and motion network (STM). However, with blocks stacking up, the rear part of the network has poor interpretability. To avoid this problem, we propose a novel architecture called spatial temporal relation network (STRNet), which can learn explicit information of appearance, motion and especially the temporal relation information. Specifically, our STRNet is constructed by three branches, which separates the features into 1) appearance pathway, to obtain spatial semantics, 2) motion pathway, to reinforce the spatiotemporal feature representation, and 3) relation pathway, to focus on capturing temporal relation details of successive frames and to explore long-term representation dependency. In addition, our STRNet does not just simply merge the multi-branch information, but we apply a flexible and effective strategy to fuse the complementary information from multiple pathways. We evaluate our network on four major action recognition benchmarks: Kinetics-400, UCF-101, HMDB-51, and Something-Something v1, demonstrating that the performance of our STRNet achieves the state-of-the-art result on the UCF-101 and HMDB-51 datasets, as well as a comparable accuracy with the state-of-the-art method on Something-Something v1 and Kinetics-400.
STEP AP 242 Managed Model-based 3D Engineering: An Application Towards the Automation of Fixture Planning
Remil George Thomas, Deepak Lawrence K., Manu R.
2021, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 731-746, doi: 10.1007/s11633-020-1272-x
Abstract:
Fixture design and planning is one of the most important manufacturing activities, playing a pivotal role in deciding the lead time for product development. Fixture design, which affects the part-quality in terms of geometric accuracy and surface finish, can be enhanced by using the product manufacturing information (PMI) stored in the neutral standard for the exchange of product model data (STEP) file, thereby integrating design and manufacturing. The present paper proposes a unique fixture design approach, to extract the geometry information from STEP application protocol (AP) 242 files of computer aided design (CAD) models, for providing automatic suggestions of locator positions and clamping surfaces. Automatic feature extraction software “FiXplan”, developed using the programming language C#, is used to extract the part feature, dimension and geometry information. The information from the STEP AP 242 file is deduced using geometric reasoning techniques, which in turn is utilized for fixture planning. The developed software is observed to be adept in identifying the primary, secondary, and tertiary locating faces and locator position configurations of prismatic components. Structural analysis of the prismatic part under different locator positions was performed using commercial finite element method software, ABAQUS, and the optimized locator position was identified on the basis of minimum deformation of the workpiece. The area-ratio (base locator enclosed area (%)/work piece base area (%)) for the ideal locator configuration was observed as 33%. Experiments were conducted on a prismatic workpiece using a specially designed fixture, for different locator configurations. The surface roughness and waviness of the machined surfaces were analysed using an Alicona non-contact optical profilometer. The best surface characteristics were obtained for the surface machined under the ideal locator positions having an area-ratio of 33%, thus validating the predicted numerical results. The efficiency, capability and applicability of the developed software is demonstrated for the finishing operation of a sensor cover – a typical prismatic component having applications in the naval industry, under different locator configurations. The best results were obtained under the proposed ideal locator configuration of area-ratio 33%.
A 2D Mapping Method Based on Virtual Laser Scans for Indoor Robots
Xu-Yang Shao, Guo-Hui Tian, Ying Zhang
2021, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 747-765, doi: 10.1007/s11633-021-1304-1
Abstract:
The indoor robots are expected to complete metric navigation tasks safely and efficiently in complex environments, which is the essential prerequisite for accomplishing other high-level operation tasks. 2D occupancy grid maps are sufficient to support the robots in avoiding all obstacles in the environments during navigation. However, the maps based on normal laser scans only reflect a horizontal slice of the environment, which may cause the problem of some obstacles missing or misinterpreting their exact boundaries, thereby threatening the safety and efficiency of robot navigation. This paper presents a 2D mapping method based on virtual laser scans to provide a more comprehensive representation of obstacles for indoor robot navigation. The resulting maps can accurately represent the top-down projected contours of all obstacles no matter where their vertical positions are. The virtual laser scans are initially generated from raw data of an RGB-D camera based on the filtering, projection, and polar-coordinate scanning. The scans are fed directly to the laser-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithms to update the current map and robot position. Two auxiliary strategies are proposed to further improve the quality of maps by reducing the impact of the narrow field of view and the blind zone of the RGB-D camera on the observations. In this paper, the improved virtual laser generation method makes the extracted 2D observations fit the laser-based SLAM algorithms, and two auxiliary strategies are novel ways to improve map quality. The generated maps can reflect the comprehensive obstacle information in indoor environments with good accuracy. The comparative experiments are carried out based on four simulation scenarios and three real-world scenarios to prove the effectiveness of our 2D mapping method.
Behavior-based Autonomous Navigation and Formation Control of Mobile Robots in Unknown Cluttered Dynamic Environments with Dynamic Target Tracking
Nacer Hacene, Boubekeur Mendil
2021, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 766-786, doi: 10.1007/s11633-020-1264-x
Abstract:
While different species in nature have safely solved the problem of navigation in a dynamic environment, this remains a challenging task for researchers around the world. The paper addresses the problem of autonomous navigation in an unknown dynamic environment for a single and a group of three wheeled omnidirectional mobile robots (TWOMRs). The robot has to track a dynamic target while avoiding dynamic obstacles and dynamic walls in an unknown and very dense environment. It adopts a behavior-based controller that consists of four behaviors: “target tracking”, “obstacle avoidance”, “dynamic wall following” and “avoid robots”. The paper considers the problem of kinematic saturation. In addition, it introduces a strategy for predicting the velocity of dynamic obstacles based on two successive measurements of the ultrasonic sensors to calculate the velocity of the obstacle expressed in the sensor frame. Furthermore, the paper proposes a strategy to deal with dynamic walls even when they have U-like or V-like shapes. The approach can also deal with the formation control of a group of robots based on the leader-follower structure and the behavior-based control, where the robots have to get together and maintain a given formation while navigating toward the target, avoiding obstacles and walls in a dynamic environment. The effectiveness of the proposed approaches is demonstrated via simulation.
Robust Observer-based Control of Nonlinear Multi-omnidirectional Wheeled Robot Systems via High Order Sliding-mode Consensus Protocol
M. R. Rahimi Khoygani, R. Ghasemi, P. Ghayoomi
2021, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 787-801, doi: 10.1007/s11633-020-1254-z
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel observer-based controller for a class of nonlinear multi-agent robot models using the high order sliding mode consensus protocol. In many applications, demand for autonomous vehicles is growing; omnidirectional wheeled robots are suggested to meet this demand. They are flexible, fast, and autonomous, able to find the best direction and can move on an optional path at any time. Multi-agent omnidirectional wheeled robot (MOWR) systems consist of several similar or different robots and there are multiple different interactions between their agents, thus the MOWR systems have complex dynamics. Hence, designing a robust reliable controller for the nonlinear MOWR operations is considered an important obstacles in the science of the control design. A high order sliding mode is selected in this work that is a suitable technique for implementing a robust controller for nonlinear complex dynamics models. Furthermore, the proposed method ensures all signals involved in the multi-agent system (MAS) are uniformly ultimately bounded and the system is robust against the external disturbances and uncertainties. Theoretical analysis of candidate Lyapunov functions has been presented to depict the stability of the overall MAS, the convergence of observer and tracking error to zero, and the reduction of the chattering phenomena. In order to illustrate the promising performance of the methodology, the observer is applied to two nonlinear dynamic omnidirectional wheeled robots. The results display the meritorious performance of the scheme.
Robust Optimal Higher-order-observer-based Dynamic Sliding Mode Control for VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Yashar Mousavi, Amin Zarei, Arash Mousavi, Mohsen Biari
2021, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 802-813, doi: 10.1007/s11633-021-1282-3
Abstract:
This paper investigates the precise trajectory tracking of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) capable of vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) subjected to external disturbances. For this reason, a robust higher-order-observer-based dynamic sliding mode controller (HOB-DSMC) is developed and optimized using the fractional-order firefly algorithm (FOFA). In the proposed scheme, the sliding surface is defined as a function of output variables, and the higher-order observer is utilized to estimate the unmeasured variables, which effectively alleviate the undesirable effects of the chattering phenomenon. A neighboring point close to the sliding surface is considered, and as the tracking error approaches this point, the second control is activated to reduce the control input. The stability analysis of the closed-loop system is studied based on Lyapunov stability theorem. For a better study of the proposed scheme, various trajectory tracking tests are provided, where accurate tracking and strong robustness can be simultaneously ensured. Comparative simulation results validate the proposed control strategy′s effectiveness and its superiorities over conventional sliding mode controller (SMC) and integral SMC approaches.
Fault Classification for On-board Equipment of High-speed Railway Based on Attention Capsule Network
Lu-Jie Zhou, Jian-Wu Dang, Zhen-Hai Zhang
2021, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 814-825, doi: 10.1007/s11633-021-1291-2
Abstract:
The conventional troubleshooting methods for high-speed railway on-board equipment, with over-reliance on personnel experience, is characterized by one-sidedness and low efficiency. In the process of high-speed train operation, numerous text-based on-board logs are recorded by on-board computers. Machine learning methods can help technicians make a correct judgment of fault types using the on-board log reasonably. Therefore, a fault classification model of on-board equipment based on attention capsule networks is proposed. This paper presents an empirical exploration of the application of a capsule network with dynamic routing in fault classification. A capsule network can encode the internal spatial part-whole relationship between various entities to identify the fault types. As the importance of each word in the on-board log and the dependencies between them have a significant impact on fault classification, an attention mechanism is incorporated into the capsule network to distill important information. Considering the imbalanced distribution of normal data and fault data in the on-board log, the focal loss function is introduced into the model to adjust the imbalanced data. The experiments are conducted on the on-board log of a railway bureau and compared with other baseline models. The experimental results demonstrate that our model outperforms the compared baseline methods, proving the superiority and competitiveness of our model.
Global FLS-based Consensus of Stochastic Uncertain Nonlinear Multi-agent Systems
Jia-Xi Chen, Jun-Min Li
2021, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 826-837, doi: 10.1007/s11633-021-1279-y
Abstract:
Using graph theory, matrix theory, adaptive control, fuzzy logic systems and other tools, this paper studies the leader-follower global consensus of two kinds of stochastic uncertain nonlinear multi-agent systems (MAS). Firstly, the fuzzy logic systems replaces the feedback compensator as the feedforward compensator to describe the uncertain nonlinear dynamics. Secondly, based on the network topology, all followers are divided into two categories: One is the followers who can obtain the leader signal, and the other is the follower who cannot obtain the leader signal. Thirdly, based on the adaptive control method, distributed control protocols are designed for the two types of followers. Fourthly, based on matrix theory and stochastic Lyapunov stability theory, the stability of the closed-loop systems is analyzed. Finally, three simulation examples are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms.
An Immersive Virtual Reality System for Rodents in Behavioral and Neural Research
Li Liu, Zi-Yang Wang, Yu Liu, Chun Xu
2021, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 838-848, doi: 10.1007/s11633-021-1307-y
Abstract:
Context cognition involves abstractly deriving meaning from situational information in the world and is an important psychological function of higher cognition. However, due to the complexity of contextual information processing, along with the lack of relevant technical tools, little remains known about the neural mechanisms and behavioral regulation of context cognition. At present, behavioral training with rodents using virtual reality techniques is considered a potential key for uncovering the neurobiological mechanisms of context cognition. Although virtual reality technology has been preliminarily applied in the study of context cognition in recent years, there remains a lack of virtual scenario integration of multi-sensory information, along with a need for convenient experimental design platforms for researchers who have little programming experience. Therefore, in order to solve problems related to the authenticity, immersion, interaction, and flexibility of rodent virtual reality systems, an immersive virtual reality system based on visual programming was constructed in this study. The system had the ability to flexibly modulate rodent interactive 3D dynamic experimental environments. The system included a central control unit, virtual perception unit, virtual motion unit, virtual vision unit, and video recording unit. The neural circuit mechanisms in various environments could be effectively studied by combining two-photon imaging and other neural activity recording methods. In addition, to verify the proposed system′s performance, licking experiments were conducted with experimental mice. The results demonstrated that the system could provide a new method and tool for analyzing the neural circuits of the higher cognitive functions in rodents.
Simultaneous Stabilization of Port-Hamiltonian Systems Subject to Actuation Saturation and Input Delay
Liang-Cheng Cai
2021, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 849-854, doi: 10.1007/s11633-015-0928-4
Abstract:
This paper investigates the simultaneous stabilization of Port-Hamiltonian (PH) systems subject to actuation saturation (AS) and input delay. Firstly, two parallel connecting PH systems subject to the AS and input delay are proposed. Secondly, a simultaneous stabilization control law is designed by a difference between the two feedback control laws containing the input delay. Thirdly, computing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii function assures the simultaneous stabilization of the above systems. Finally, simulation is given to show the correctness of the proposed contents.
Correction to: A Survey on 3D Visual Tracking of Multicopters
Qiang Fu, Xiang-Yang Chen, Wei He
2021, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 855-855, doi: 10.1007/s11633-019-1213-8
Abstract:
Correction to: Transfer Hierarchical Attention Network for Generative Dialog System
Xiang Zhang, Qiang Yang
2021, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 856-856, doi: 10.1007/s11633-020-1223-6
Abstract: